答：J-1是交流访问签证计划旨在促进在教育、艺术和科学领域内人员的知识和技术交流。参加者包括各大、中、小学在校学生；参加公司、机构和办事处在职培训的人员；各小学、中学和专业技术学校的教师；赴高等教育机构任教或从事研究工作的教授，从事研究工作的学者；赴医疗机构进行专业培训的人员；以及以研究培训和示范专业知识或技能为目的的访问学者。申请人必须出示已填妥的由美方赞助单位或邀请机构发的 DS-2019 表。
美国F-1, J-1 签证面试要注意的问题
What to Expect at Your Visa Interview
What to Expect at Your Visa Interview
As per the recommendation of NAFSA (Association of International Educators), there are 10 Points to remember when applying for an F-1 or a J-1 visa
1. Ties to your Home Country
Under U.S. law, all applicants for non-immigrant visas, such as student visas, are viewed as intending immigrants until they can convince the consular officer that they are not. You must, therefore, show that your reasons for returning to your home country are stronger than those for remaining in the United States. "Ties" to your home country are things that connect you to your hometown, homeland, or current place of residence: job, family, financial prospects that you own or will inherit, investments, etc. As a prospective undergraduate, the interviewing officer may ask about your specific intentions or promise of future employment, family or other relationships, educational goals, long-range plans and career prospects in your home country. Each person's situation is different, and there is no magic explanation or single document, certificate, or letter that can guarantee you a visa. If you have applied for the U.S. Green Card Lottery, you may be asked if you are hoping to immigrate. A simple answer would be that you applied for the lottery since it was available, but not with a specific intent to immigrate. If you overstayed your authorized stay in the U.S. previously, be prepared to explain what happened clearly and concisely with documentation if available.
Expect that the interview will be conducted in English and not in your native language. One suggestion is to practice English conversation with a native speaker before the interview, but do NOT prepare speeches!
3. Speak for yourself
Do not bring parents or family members with you to the interview. The consular officer wants to interview you, not your family. You will make a negative impression if you are not prepared to speak on your own behalf.
4. Know the program and how it fits your career plan
You should also be able to explain how studying in the U.S. relates to your future professional career when you return home.
5. Be Brief
Because of the number of applications received, consular officers are under pressure to conduct a quick and efficient interview. They must make a decision, for the most part, on the impressions they form during the first minute of the interview. Therefore, what you say first and the initial impression you create are critical to your success. Keep your answers to the officer's questions short and to the point.
6. Additional documentation
It should be immediately clear to the consular officer what documents you are presenting and what they mean. Lengthy documents cannot be read or evaluated quickly. Remember that you will have 2-3 minutes of interview time, if you are lucky.
7. Not all countries are equal
Applicants from countries suffering economic problems or from countries where many students have remained in the U.S as immigrants will have difficulty getting visas. They are more likely to be asked about job opportunities at home after their study in the U.S.
Your main purpose of coming to the United States should be to study, not to work before or after graduation. While many students do work on-campus during their studies, such employment is secondary to completing their degree. You must clearly explain your plan to return home at the end of your program. If your spouse is also applying for an accompanying F-2 visa, be aware that F-2 dependents cannot, under any circumstances, be employed in the U.S. If asked, be prepared to tell the officer what your spouse intends to do with his or her time while in the U.S. Volunteer work and attending school part-time are permitted activities.
9. Dependants at home
If your spouse and children are remaining behind in your country, be prepared to explain how they will support themselves while you are gone. This can be especially tricky if you are the primary source of income for your family. If the consular officer gets the impression that your family will need you to send money from the United States in order to support themselves, your student visa application will almost certainly be denied. If your family does decide to join you at a later time, it is helpful to have them apply at the same post where you applied for your visa.
10. Maintain a positive attitude
Do not argue with the consular officer. If you are denied a student visa, ask the officer for a list of documents he or she would suggest you bring in order to change the decision, and try to get the reason you were denied in writing.
Early Decision, Early Action, Regular Decision的区别
Early Decision：这是美国大学希望吸引学生的一种录取时间计划，通常来看。录取难度会稍微低一些。它的申请截止日期通常在每年10月中，录取结果在12月份前就可以出来。它的内容是，学生只能选择一所学校作为早申请的目标学校。如果选择Early Decision,需要和学校签订协议，接受该学校在录取之后的任何安排，包括或者财务和奖学金的安排。学生只要被该学校录取，按照合同规定就必须去这个学校，没有权力再去其他学校了，即使别的学校可以给你再高额度的奖学金。从我们中国同学的申请实战角度来说，早申请计划的选择是需要非常慎重的。学校的挑选应当经过深思熟虑才可以。很多学生对于早申请的残酷性没有很强烈的认识，选择了一个学校被录取之后，发现其他更好的学校也录取了自己，希望能毁约去其他的学校，但是这种毁约的可能性是微乎其微的，到后面发现自己很吃亏。从美国本科申请的实践角度来说，我认为，学生选择早申请计划，应当选择比较高的，自己非常喜欢的，认为录取自己难度系数比较大的学校。如果录取了就是皆大欢喜，如果不录取，自己也不会很难受。切勿选择自己认能比较容易申请上的学校，到后面发现更好的学校通知书来了自己一腔遗憾。
关于Early Action, 中文叫早行动，提供这种申请模式的学校并不是很多。它和Early Decision的申请时间上有所类似，需要学生在10月15日左右提前申请。12月份就可以给结果，但是一个重要区别就是，早行动的申请结果是不需要绑定的，也就是说，学生在很早获得结果后，可以再看其他学校的申请结果，在次年的4月答复学校是否去学校学习。例如美国著名的Boston College（波士顿学院）就提供Early Action的申请方式。这种方式给了学生很大的灵活性，也很受学生喜欢。不过它也有不利的一面，就是录取的标准要高一些，录取人数也少一些。原因非常简单，学校既然提前录取了学生又不绑定学生，那么会有很大的风险被选择的学生到后来答复不去，那么实际上就浪费了招生的名额，故此，学校必须要将早行动的招生名额的数量限定的少些，标准设定的高些。这样可以尽可能的规避风险。所以虽然Early Action可以给学生不绑定的利益，那么学生在申请这个计划的时候要仔细考虑是否自己的水平能和学校早行动要求的水平一致。如果发现有一定差距，那么还不如不做早行动，选择通常申请。
Early Decision and Early Action
What Are They and Are They Right for You?Have you noticed a new buzz word in your school hallways or counselor's office? "I'm applying early decision." "Will I be notified early?" Has all this early talk gotten you prematurely anxious about applying to colleges? The Early Bird Gets the WormThis cliché is the basic concept behind early decision and early action plans. Your worm is knowing in December whether or not you've been accepted at your first-choice college. Then, hopefully, you can enjoy the rest of your senior year without stressing about getting into college. The "worm" for the colleges that offer these plans is locking in students early in the process who really want to go to the school. Early Decision vs. Early ActionEarly decision plans allow you to apply early (usually in November) and get an admissions decision from the college well in advance of the usual notification date. But there is a catch. Early decision plans are binding, meaning if you apply as an early decision candidate, you agree to attend the college if it accepts you and offers an adequate financial aid package. Although you can apply to only one college for early decision, you may apply to other colleges through the regular admissions process. If you're accepted by your first-choice college early, you must withdraw all other applications. Usually, colleges insist on a nonrefundable deposit well before May 1. Early action plans are similar to early decision plans in that you can learn early in the admission cycle (usually in January or February) whether a college has accepted you. But unlike early decision, most early action plans are not binding, meaning you do not have to commit to a college to which you've applied for early action. Under these plans, you may apply to other colleges. Usually, you can let the college know of your decision in the late spring or whenever you've decided. Single-Choice Early ActionSome colleges have begun offering a new admissions option called single-choice early action. This plan works the same way as other early action plans, but with single-choice, candidates may not apply early (either early action or early decision) to any other school. You can still apply to other schools regular decision and are not required to give your final answer of acceptance until the regular decision deadline. This allows you to compare offers of financial aid in the spring before making a commitment. Should I Apply Under One of These Plans?You should apply under an early decision or action plan only if you are very, very sure of the college you want to attend. These plans make a lot of sense if one college is your clear preference and if your profile closely matches that of the students at that college. Do not apply under an early decision or action plan if you plan to weigh offers and financial aid packages from several colleges later in the spring. Also, you shouldn't apply early if it is to your advantage to have more of your senior year work to show a college. If you plan to woo an admissions office with your excellent grades this year, you may want to wait until after the semester ends to apply to colleges. Who Offers Early Plans?More than 400 colleges offer an early decision plan, an early action plan, or both. Use our College Search to find out if the colleges in which you're interested offer these options. You can also find this information in The College Board College Handbook, available in the online store. Do Your ResearchBefore applying to an early action and early decision plan, research all your options to decide which college is the right one for you. Does the college have everything you want in a school? You can use College Search to find schools that match your preferences. A Last Word of AdviceGet advice from your high school counselor and other trusted advisors before applying to a college as an early decision applicant. In the fall, it may seem appealing to get the college decision over with, but as your senior year progresses, you may find your academic and other goals changing. On the other hand, you may be very confident that you will thrive at a certain college. If so, you're the type of student for which early decision was created.
Jiawei Zhang DOB: 04/09/1992
God places many different influences and opportunities in our lives to form us for His purposes. Describe how a person, place, educational experience, or event has impacted your life and how it will motivate you as a Dordt College student
Looking back at my life in the past years and considering how much I have learned through the many years, I am sure my father has shaped and influenced me very much.
My father is a persistent person who can stick to one thing and do it for a long time without distraction. He is also a respected English teacher in China and by several American English teachers with whom he worked following his training program. I think it is my father’s influence that has developed my quality of perseverance.
Twenty years ago, he graduated from a normal university. In China then, he could be very qualified for his job. But my father kept on studying and practicing English every day to be better. So, I was immersed in English at home almost every minute when he was around. Now, I realize why I have learned English much more easily than my classmates. It is all due to the English environment where I can learn English unconsciously. Consequently, I was able to win respect of my peers and enhance my self-confidence and interest in English. Finally, I am honored to be selected as an exchange student to the United States, primarily thanks to my ability to be communicative in English, I think.
My talent in music is also a result of my father’s influence. He is a very good guitar player and at the same time he sent me to violin lessons and helped me when I practiced. If it had not been for my father’s patience and unremitting efforts, I could not have won the silver medal in the national violin competition and I would not have been able to be recruited into the Concord Orchestra, Inc. as a violinist.
Anyway, my father’s significant influence on me is beyond description and I can never thank him enough. His impact on me will continue to help me to be a successful student at school and an accomplished man in life.
Besides, I will go on striving to make further progress in engineering and music as a Dordt College student. I believe， if I pursue the two things long enough, I will surely be better at the two fields.
I am blessed to be bestowed a good father to guide me throughout my life, and God gives me the opportunity to be admitted to Dordt College, where advantageous environment is offered.
10 Tips to Applying for a F-1 Student Visa
1. TIES TO HOME COUNTRY
Under U.S. law, all applicants for non-immigrant visas are viewed as intending immigrants until they can convince the consular officer that they are not. Thus, you must be able to show that you have reasons for returning to your country that are stronger than those for remaining in the United States. "Ties" to your home country include the following: family, job, financial assets that you own or will inherit, investments, etc. The interviewing officer may ask about your plans for future employment, family or other relationships, educational objectives, and long-term plans in general in your home country. Each person's situation is different and there is no guarantee of visa approval.
2. ENGLISH ABILITY
Anticipate that the interview will be conducted in English and not in your native language. One suggestion is to practice English conversation with a native speaker before the interview. If you are coming to the United States solely to study intensive English, be prepared to explain how English will be useful for you in your home country.
3. SPEAK FOR YOURSELF
Do not bring parents or family members with you to the interview; the consular officer wants to interview you, not your family. A negative impression is created if you are not prepared to speak on your own behalf.
4. KNOW YOUR ACADEMIC PROGRAM AND HOW IT FITS YOUR CAREER PLANS
If you are not able to articulate the reasons you will study in a particular NDSU program, you may not succeed in convincing the consular officer that you are indeed planning to study, rather than to immigrate to the U.S. You should also be able to explain how studying in the U.S. relates to you future professional career when you return home.
5. BE CONCISE
Because of the volume of applications received, all consular officers are under considerable time pressure to conduct a quick and efficient interview. They must often make a decision, on the impressions they form during the first minute or two of the interview. Consequently, what you say first and the initial impression you create are critical to your success. Keep your answers to the officer's questions short and to the point.
6. SUPPLEMENTAL DOCUMENTATION
It should be clear at a glance to the consular officer what written documents you are presenting and what they signify. Lengthy written explanations cannot be quickly read or evaluated. Remember that you will have 2-3 minutes of interview time, if you're lucky, and all documents should be official or certified originals.
7. NOT ALL COUNTRIES ARE EQUAL
Applicants from countries suffering economic problems or from countries where many people have stayed in the United States as immigrants will have more difficulty getting visas. Statistically, applicants from those countries are more likely to be asked about job opportunities at home after their study in the United States. Additional documentation or processing time may be required.
Your main purpose of coming to the United States should be to study, not for the chance to work before or after graduation. While many students do work off-campus during their studies, such employment is secondary to their main purpose of completing their education. You must be able to clearly articulate your plan to return home at the end of your program. If your spouse is applying for an accompanying F-2 visa, be aware that F-2 dependents cannot, under any circumstances, be employed in the U.S. If asked, be prepared to address what your spouse intends to do with his or her time while in the U.S. Volunteer work and attending school part-time are permitted activities. See Employment Restrictions for more info.
9. DEPENDENTS REMAINING AT HOME
If your spouse and/or children are remaining in your home country, be prepared to address how they will support themselves in your absence. This can be an especially tricky area if you are the primary source of income for your family. If the consular general officer gains the impression that your family members will need you to send money from the U.S. in order to support them, your F-1 student visa application will almost certainly be denied. If your family does decide to join you at a later time, it is helpful to have them apply at the same post where you applied for your visa.
10. MAINTAIN A POSITIVE ATTITUDE
Do not engage the consular officer in an argument. If you are denied a student visa, ask the officer for a list of documents he/she would suggest you bring in order to overcome the refusal, and try to get the reason you were denied in writing.
Q:What will you study in USA?
What’s your major, what aspect of your major will you study?
What will you do in USA? Are you going to study in USA?
A: I’m going to study XXX(major) in XXX University. My research program will concentrate on the relationship between architectural design and culture, environment, human behavior, psychology. That is, how architectural design can create cheerful environment and living condition for people. Also I will do some research on the advanced method and techniques for architectural design under some complicated conditions.
Q: Why do you want to study in US?
A: Because the architectural design and research in US is at the leading position in the world. Many famous architects work there. Meanwhile, the prospect of architecture design in China is very promising. I’d like to do my advanced research in architecture and get a Master’s degree in US. This will help me to achieve higher entry status when I come back to China, and is helpful for me to achieve my personal plan of development.
In 1998, we had a international design competition for the China National Grand Theater, I was assigned by XXX University as an assistant of the proprietor’s committee of the theater. Right in this competition, I found our designs, including the design by XXX, cannot compete with the foreign ones at all. We still have a long way to go, and there must be some breakthrough in our architectural design and education. The best way I think, is to learn advanced theory and method from abroad. Thus I decided to study in US.
Q: Why did you choose XXX university?
How did you know this university?
Have you any scholarship?
Why did you receive scholarship from this university?
A: (Many former student graduated from XXX had gone to this university. They said it is an excellent university with very good academic condition. I also visited its website and got some introduction materials from their graduate school. I found it is really a good university whose research program well caters to my research interests.)
As I know, the graduate program of architecture in XXX University is special. Its program is intentionally small and flexible, thus can meet the individual needs and goals of a small number of students. This is very important for me to accomplish my academic research.
I think my outstanding academic record in XXX, together with my excellent GRE and Toefl scores and other documents such as portfolio and statement of intent had impressed the admission committee. Based on these, they granted me their most prestigious graduate award -- the university graduate fellowship. With this fellowship, there’s no RA or TA duties for me, and it’s renewable for the next years. Thus I can be more concentrated on my graduate studies and research.
(I know that XXX University isn’t as famous as Yale, Upenn, but you can’t judge a university only by its ranking. Yale and Upenn also gave me scholarship, but XXX university gave me a very warm welcome. Their dean interviewed me on telephone several times. It is obvious that XXX university pays much more attention on me than Yale and Upenn do. This is very important for one who wish to achieve academic success.)
In their letters, they told me they can provide sufficient funds to assist me in research. Many former student graduated from my university went to XXX university, they said the research condition there is pretty good. They had a perfect CAD Lab. These students have already made great progress in XXX university.
Q: Why do you want to pursue a M.S, while you already had a M.E in China?
A: I do want to get higher academic achievement as possible as I can. But you know, most US universities don’t offer Ph.D. program in architecture.
The master’s degree I already had is in Building Science and Technology, mainly in the building acoustic design. But currently in China, people don’t pay much attention on this field. We can only work as acoustics consultants, while the future is not good. When I made the decision 4 years ago, I didn’t realize it. And later, I found that I still interest in architectural design, and I have the potential. In China, excellent architect, or designer is in great desire, especially those who learned advanced design method from US. So I hope I can get a M.S in US, therefore I can make great development in China.
Also as you know, there’s too many people have master’s degree in China, they don’t have as much advantage as they once had. While a US degree is different. People come back from US can get much higher status and payment.
Q:Will you come back to China?
What do you do with your work for M.S? What’s your plan? What will you do after graduation?
Give me three reasons that you will come back to China?
A: I’ll definitely come back to China after graduation. I have my own goal, and why I choose to study abroad is to create condition for achieving my goal.
First, I would like to set up my own architectural design firm in China. Currently, I don’t have enough ability and condition. After I get master’s degree in US, I can fulfill my dream. And I can promise you, after ten years in China, you will see great buildings designed by me.
Secondly, there is news from Chinese government recently. It said during the next 15 years, China is going to build 1000 cities, thus the urban population will make up more than 50% in the total population. This is an exciting information for our architects. As you can see, this news means sufficient project for us to do in the next 20 years.
Third, China is applying for holding the 2008 Olympic Games. If China succeed in this campaign, there will be lot of gymnasiums, hotels and other facilities to be built. This is also a great opportunity for us. And I can just catch up the construction right after graduation from XXX university.
On the other hand, the future in this field is limited in US. Too many excellent architects work there, almost no place for us foreigners. You know, if you get a job in US after graduation, you can only do as a draftsman, with a salary of no more than $30,000 a year. They can never become what are called real architects, or masters. But in China the situation is totally different. Architects with master’s degrees in US can preside very large project, and has high social status and income, probably more than 100,000 RMB a year. I firmly believe that I can have a much prospective future in China as an architect.
In China, we have a famous architect named Zhang Kaiji, his son, Zhang Yonghe studied in US and stayed there for 10 years. He didn’t receive any project there and can only work as a teacher in an university. When he came back, he set up his firm and made many excellent designs in China.
Q: Can you explain why 90% China student didn’t come back?
A: The fact that 95% of Chinese students didn’t come back is not a reasonable logic that I will not come back either. Even 99% Chinese students stay in USA, I will be the other 1%. It’s necessary for me to return to China to pursue my dream and ambition, which is very difficult for a foreigner to do in USA. I agree that USA is a great country, but not every one wants to stay there, since it’s difficult to achieve my goal in USA, which include a high social position and respectable social status.
I think it’s mainly because of their major. For some major, the prospect in China isn’t promising. They want to stay in US to continue their research because the condition and equipment there are much better. But things have changed. A recent investigation showed that, with the fast development of China, 80% of the students studying abroad are intending to come back.
Actually most of the scholars who came back to China are very successful.
Q: Why do you like your major?
A: It’s a kind of field that has close relationship with art and culture. It calls for both imagination, craftsmanship, art inspiration and a deep understanding of cultures. I love such kind of work.
Q: Why are you special?
A: In fact, I myself don’t think I’m really special although others often think I am. I think it’s because I’m a kind of perfectionist. I’ve always wanted to be the best in whatever I chose to do. I always use my energy on proper time and place, never waste it. And I’m a person who likes to challenge myself. Applying for US university is also a kind of challenge. I would like to pursue my highest achievement as possible as I can.